With the current growth and investment in automated driving it is important that road authorities and operators are participating and informed. The scope of this activity is to prepare road authorities and operators to make decisions on facilitating automated driving and automating their own core business.
An automated vehicle is one that can, at least partly, perform a driving task independently of a human driver; this includes functions such as steering, throttle or braking.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) International has defined levels of driving automation for on-road vehicles, these have been widely adopted. The levels identify how the dynamic driving task moves from human driver control, with no automation, Level 0, to a full-time automated driving system, Level 5. In recent years most new vehicles have some built-in safety features or driver assist technologies which meet SAE Level 1, such as adaptive cruise control, lane alignment and crash avoidance, making Level 0 almost obsolete. The table summarises the SAE driving automation levels.
Source: Adapted from SAE Standard J3016 (SAE, 2014)
Motivation and benefits
Automated driving technologies can be applied to both passenger and commercial vehicles, with applications in all road environments. The main benefits of increasing automated driving are:
- Improved safety – reducing accidents caused by human error
- Reduced congestion – improving throughput and traffic flow
- Meeting environmental objectives – through smoother traffic flow and lower impact vehicles in protected environments
- Improved social inclusion – for the elderly and travellers with special needs or reduced mobility
- Increased accessibility – providing last mile and urban access solutions
- Increased comfort and reduced stress – releasing driving time to other activities and reducing driver anxiety / frustration
These support many key national, European, policy and societal objectives.
The interactions between autonomous vehicles and infrastructure is complex and evolving as vehicle technologies progress. Vehicles with artificial intelligence will not drive and interpret the surrounding environment in the same way as human drivers and so adaptations to infrastructure will be required. It is important that vehicle technologies and infrastructure technologies are progressed in parallel and in a coordinated way.
Given these benefits and the rapid development of autonomous driving technologies the European ITS Platform has established SA 4.2: Facilitating automated driving to foster cooperation, reach consensus and prepare road authorities and operators to make decisions on facilitating automated driving and automating their own core business.
The main tasks of the activity are to:
- Identify the requirements of higher level (SAE 3-5) of automated driving for road authorities/operators - road markings, traffic signs, real-time and predictive traffic information, digital maps, cooperative ITS infrastructure
- Assess the direct and indirect impacts of higher level automated driving on traffic, mobility and the core business of road authorities and operators; investigate the socio-economic benefits and costs of automated driving from the road operator’s perspective
- Provide a road map and action plan, focussing on the needs of road operators to facilitate automated driving on the TEN road network
- Identify the requirements of automating road operator ITS to facilitate automated driving (i.e. self-maintenance, self-optimisation, self-management, self-healing); and automation level of traffic centre operations and services (control/management/information)
- Monitor, liaise and disseminate, to gain better understanding in global activities, R&D, deployment, and policy development, disseminate lessons learned
Date: 21st - 22nd September, 2016
Location: Madrid, Spain
1. Identification of automated driving requirements, and
2. Autonomic road side ITS systems / Automation of road operator ITS.
For information please contact Aki Lumiaho, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Kick-off meeting: 10March 2016, Helsinki